Aristotle was a pupil of Plato, and was a biologist, zoologist, physicist and philosopher among other things. He believed that happiness lay in eudaimonia, most commonly translated as flourishing. Eudaimonia is a life of virtue in accordance with reason. Happiness is a ‘state of activity.’ Virtue is to be found within a Golden Mean, which lies between two vices-the vice of excess and the vice of deficiency (e.g. courage is the mean between the excess of rashness and the deficiency of cowardice). The mean is discovered through practical reasoning (phronesis). Aristotle did believe that some kind of fortune was required for happiness-one must be healthy and not ugly and have some kind of wealth as well as being self-sufficient, yet he maintains that ‘happiness depends upon ourselves.’ It is up to ourselves to work towards happiness. Eudaimonia is a state acquired over a long period of time rather than a fleeting feeling or moment. It is not an easy acquisition, but worthwhile and it justifies the pain experienced. Happiness lies in virtuous activities rather than pleasure, although Aristotle does acknowledge the important role of pleasure and pain in our lives-acting virtuously should become pleasurable over time.
Happiness is not something easily attained for Aristotle, yet for him it is the telos of human existence, and although it may be a tough and harsh road, the outcome makes all the toil worthwhile.